N.O.M Petrol - PRESSURE

Вторник, 2016-12-06, 10:48 PM



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PRESSURE

        1 Bar                   = 0.987 atmospheres

                                = 750.1 mm Hg

                                = 14.50 pound/sq inch

                                = 1.020 kg force/sq cm

        1 kg force/sq cm        = 14.22 pounds/sq inch

        1 pound/sq inch         = 0.070 kg force/sq inch

 

HEAT AND ENERGY

        1 megajoule             = 238.8 kilocalories

                                = 947.8 British Thermal Units

                                = 0.278 kilowatt hours

        1 terajoule             = 0.00002388 Mtoe

        1 kilocalorie           = 3.968 Btu

                                = 4186 joules

                                = 1.163 x 10-3 kWh

        1 kilowatt hour         = 859.8 kilocalories

                                = 3412 Btu

        1 million Btu           = 1055 megajoule

                                = 2520 megacalories

                                = 293.1 kilowatt hours

        1 ton of oil equivalent = 10000000 kilocalories

          (toe)                 = 41.868 gigajoules

                                = 40.047 x 106 BTU

                                = 42.244 GJ

 

INTERFUEL CONVERSION FACTOR

        Whilst individual crudes, coals and gases vary widely in quality, certain standard
        qualities are often assumed for statistical purposes:

       

        Reference     Barrel Oil   Ton Oil     Ton Coal     1,000 Cubic

        Fuel          Equivalent   Equivalent  Equivalent   Feet Natural

                                                            Gas

       

        Calorific     5.8x106      43x106      7x106        1x106

        Value         Btu gross    Btu gross   Kcal net     Btu gross

 

        Conversion    1            0.14        0.21         5.8

         Factors      7.41         1           1.57         43.0

                      4.71         0.64        1            27.3

                      0.17         0.02        0.04         1

        ---------------------------------------------------

        Based on these qualities, the following equivalent rates ofconsumption
        can be used with reasonable accuracy:

        ---------------------------------------------------

        LNG           NG           OIL         OIL          COAL

        t/y           106 mmcF/d  toe/y       boe/y        tce/y

                      109 Nm3/y

        -----------------------------------------------------------------

        1             1.41         1.22        25           1.9

        0.71          1            0.87        18           39

        0.82          1.15         1           20           1.55

        0.04          0.056        0.049       1            0.076

        0.53          0.74         0.64        13           1

        ---------------------------------------------------------

 

CALORIFIC VALUE

        1 magajoule/cu m        = 25.84 Btu/cu ft

        1 megajoule per normal  = 25.368 BTU per standard cubic feet

          cubic meter             (BTU/SCF)

                                = 2.388 x 102 kilocalorie per normal

                                  cubic meter (kcal/Nm3)

        1 kilocalorie/cu m      = 0.016 Btu/cu ft

        1 megajoule/kg          = 429.9 Btu/pound

        1 kilocalorie           = 1.8 Btu/pound (exact)

        1 Btu/cu ft             = 37.38 kilojoules/cu m

                                = 9.410 kilocalories/cu m

        1 Btu/pound             = 2.326 kilojoules/kg

                                = 0.556 kilocalories/kg

 

ENERGY VALUES

        Btu per lb:

        wood: green              4,400

              dry                7,310

        peat, sod                6,200

        lignite                  9,000

        coke                    12,100

        coal: bituminous        13,000

              anthracite        14,500

        oil:  fuel              18,500

              gas               19,500

 

=============================================================

NATURAL GAS AND OTHER ENERGY EQUIVALENTS

 

The following are quick-reference equivalents. All figures are
APROXIMATE VALUES only for use where precision is not required.
They are based on:

 

(i)     for natural gas:

        1,000 Btu/ft3 = 9,500 kcal/m3 (Groningen gas 8,400 kcal/m3)

(ii)    for LPG:

        an assumed 50/50 propane/butane mixture with (r) or (p) indicating that
        the LPG is either refrigerated or pressurised.

(iii)   calorific values, MMBtu (gross):

        per tonne       - LNG 51.8; LPG 47.3; oil 42.3; coal 27.3

        per barrel      - LNG 3.8; LPG (r) 4.45; LPG (p) 4.1; oil 5.8

        per cubic metre - LNG 23.8; LPG (r) 28; LPG (p) 25.8

 

Natural Gas: Cubic Metre Equivalents

---------------------------------------------------------

1 mrd m3 Natural Gas per Year

        per year = 0.04 Tcf gas (38 trillion Btu)

                 = 890 000 tonnes oil

                 = 800 000 tonnes LPG

                 = 725 000 tonnes LNG

                 = 1.4 million tonnes coal

        per day  = 100 million ft3 gas

                 = 17 800 barrels oil

                 = 23 200 barrels LPG (r)

                 = 25 200 barrels LPG (p)

                 = 27 200 barrels LNG

1 million m3 Natural Gas per Day

        per year = 0.014 Tcf gas (14 trillion Btu)

                 = 325 000 tonnes oil

                 = 290 000 tonnes LPG

                 = 265 000 tonnes LNG

                 = 500 000 tonnes coal

        per day  = 37 million ft3 gas

                 = 6 500 barrels oil

                 = 8 500 barrels LPG (r)

                 = 9 200 barrels LPG (p)

                 = 9 900 barrels LNG

        1 m3 Groningen gas = 0.88 m3 (9 500 kcal)

        1 m3 (9 500 kcal) = 1.13 m3 Groningen gas

 

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